CSE 599Q: Intro to Quantum Computing

Autumn 2022

T Th 11:30am-12:50pm in ARC 160

Instructor: James R. Lee

Office hours: M 11:30-12:30pm (online: zoom link), or by appt.

Teaching assistant(s):

Course email list [archives]

Class discussion: CSE 599Q EdStem

Course evaluation: 100% Homework

  • Homework #1 (gradescope link) [Wed, Oct 12 @ 11:59pm]
  • Homework #2 (gradescope link) [Sun, Oct 23 @ 11:59pm]
  • Homework #3 (gradescope link) [Fri, Nov 4 @ 11:59pm]
  • Homework #4 (gradescope link) [Fri, Nov 18 @ 11:59pm]
  • Homework #5 (gradescope link) [Sun, Dec 11 @ 11:59pm]
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    Course description:

    An introduction to the field of quantum computing from the perspective of computer science theory.

    Quantum computing leverages the revolutionary potential of computers that exploit the parallelism of the quantum mechanical laws of the universe. Topics covered include:

    • The axioms of quantum mechanics
    • Quantum cryptography (quantum money, quantum key distribution)
    • Quantum algorithms (Grover search, Shor's algorithm)
    • Quantum information theory (mixed states, measurements, and quantum channels)
    • Quantum state tomography (learning and distinguishing quantum states)
    • Quantum complexity theory
    • Quantum error correction
    • Quantum "supremacy"

    Prerequisites: A background in undergraduate level linear algebra, probability theory, and CS theory.

    Lectures

    Introduction
    • Sep 29: Computing with parallel universes
    Basic structures of quantum computation Basics of quantum information Quantum algorithms Quantum information theory

    Introduction
    Thu, Sep 29
    Computing with parallel universes
    Slides

    Basic structures of quantum computation
    Tue, Oct 04
    Qubits
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 1.2-1.3, Mermin 1.1-1.2

    • Superpositions: Consider a system that can be in one of two states \(\ket{0}\) and \(\ket{1}\). Our first principle of quantum mechanics says that if a quantum system can be in two basic states, then it can also be in any superposition of those states.

      A superposition is of the form \(\alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) where \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\) are complex numbers and \(\abs{\alpha}^2 + \abs{\beta}^2 = 1\). (Recall that if \(\alpha = a + bi\), then \(\abs{\alpha} = \sqrt{a^2 + b^2}\).)

      A qubit is a unit vector in \(\begin{bmatrix} \alpha \\ \beta \end{bmatrix} \in \mathbb{C}^2\) that we think of as superposition \(\alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) of the two basic states \(\ket{0}\) and \(\ket{1}\).

      Here are some possible qubit states:

      \[\qquad \ket{0},\ \ket{1},\ \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\ket{0} + \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\ket{1},\ 0.8 \ket{0} - 0.6 \ket{1},\ (\tfrac{1}{2} - \tfrac{i}{2}) \ket{0} - \tfrac{i}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}.\]
    • More generally, the state of \(d\)-dimensional quantum system is described by a unit vector \(\begin{bmatrix} \alpha_1 \\ \alpha_2 \\ \vdots \\ \alpha_d \end{bmatrix} \in \mathbb{C}^d\) which we think of as a superposition \(\alpha_1 \ket{1} + \alpha_2 \ket{2} + \cdots + \alpha_d \ket{d}\) of the basic states \(\ket{1},\ket{2},\ldots,\ket{d}\).

      So we can think of \(\{\ket{1},\ket{2},\ldots,\ket{d}\}\) as the standard basis for \(\mathbb{C}^d\).

    • Bra-ket notation: In Dirac’s notation, a vector of the form \(\ket{v}\) is a column vector, and \(\bra{v}\) is shorthand for the conjugate tranpose vector \(\ket{v}^*\). One then writes the inner product of two vectors as

      \[\ip{u}{v} \seteq \bar{u}_1 v_1 + \bar{u}_2 v_2 + \cdots + \bar{u}_d v_d,\]

      where \(\overline{a+b i} = a - bi\) is the complex conjugate.

    • Measurements: Suppose we have a state \(\ket{\psi} \in \mathbb{C}^d\) and an orthonormal basis \(\ket{v_1},\ldots,\ket{v_d}\) of \(\C^d\).

      We can express \(\ket{\psi}\) in this basis as

      \[\ket{\psi} = \ip{v_1}{\psi} \,\ket{v_1} + \cdots + \ip{v_d}{\psi} \,\ket{v_d}.\]

      Our second principle of quantum mechanics asserts that when we measure \(\ket{\psi}\) in this basis, the state collapses to \(\ket{v_j}\) with probability \(|\ip{v_j}{\psi}|^2\).

      Note that since \(\{\ket{v_1},\ldots,\ket{v_d}\}\) is an orthonormal basis, we have

      \[|\ip{v_1}{\psi}|^2 + \cdots + |\ip{v_d}{\psi}|^2 = \ip{\psi}{\psi} = 1,\]

      where the latter inequality follows since \(\ket{\psi}\) is a quantum state (and thus a unit vector).

      Example:

      Consider the orthornormal basis \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) defined by

      \[\begin{align*} \ket{+} &\seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1} \\ \ket{-} &\seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} - \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}. \end{align*}\]
      • If we measure the state \(\ket{0}\) in this basis, we will obtain the state \(\ket{+}\) with probability \(\ip{+}{0}^2 = 1/2\) and the state \(\ket{-}\) with probability \(|\ip{-}{0}|^2 = 1/2\).

      • If we measure the state \(\ket{\phi} = 0.8 \ket{0} - 0.6 \ket{1}\) in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis, we will obtain the state \(\ket{+}\) with probability

        \[|\ip{+}{\phi}|^2 = \left(\frac{0.8}{\sqrt{2}} - \frac{0.6}{\sqrt{2}} \right)^2 = 0.02,\]

        and we will obtain the state \(\ket{-}\) with probability

        \[|\ip{-}{\phi}|^2 = \left(\frac{0.8}{\sqrt{2}} + \frac{0.6}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^2 = \frac{1.96}{2} = 0.98.\]
    • Nature’s massive scratch pad: Note that a system composed of \(k\) qubits has \(2^k\) possible basic states. For instance if \(k=3\), then the \(8\) basic states are

      \[\ket{000},\ket{001},\ket{010},\ket{100}, \ket{011}, \ket{101}, \ket{110}, \ket{111}.\]

      A superposition of such states has the form

      \[\alpha_{000} \ket{000} + \alpha_{001} \ket{001} + \alpha_{010} \ket{010} + \alpha_{100} \ket{100} + \alpha_{011} \ket{011} + \alpha_{101} \ket{101} + \alpha_{110} \ket{110} + \alpha_{111} \ket{111}.\]

      That means that a state on \(k\) qubits requires \(2^k\) complex amplitudes. For instance, a quantum computer with \(1000\) qubits requires \(2^{1000}\) complex numbers to describe fully. That’s substantially more than the number of atoms in the known universe!

    Related videos:

    Thu, Oct 06
    Single qubit transformations
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 1.3, Mermin 1.3

    • Our third principle of quantum mechanics is that one can perform any unitary operation on a qudit state \(\ket{\psi} \in \C^d\).

    • A unitary operation is a linear map that preserves the length of vectors. Such maps can be described as \(d \times d\) complex matrices \(U\) with the property that \(U^* U = I\). Equivalently, these are matrices \(U\) whose rows form an orthornomal basis of \(\C^d\) (equivalently, whose columns form an orthonormal basis of \(\C^d\)).

    • As an example, for some angle \(\theta\), one can consider the rotation matrix

      \[R_{\theta} = \begin{bmatrix} \cos \theta & - \sin \theta \\ \sin \theta & \cos \theta \end{bmatrix}\]
    • For instance, If we take \(\theta = 45^{\circ} = \frac{\pi}{4}\), then \(R_{45^{\circ}} \ket{0} = \ket{+}\) and \(R_{45^{\circ}} \ket{1} = \frac{-1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\).

    • Another unitary operation is the reflection

      \[X \seteq \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}\]

      This is called “X” for historical reasons. It’s also known as the quantum NOT or the swap operator since it satisfies \(X \ket{0} = \ket{1}\) and \(X \ket{1} = \ket{0}\).

    • You should check: If we want to change the basis \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) into \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\), we can use the unitary operator \(X R_{45^{\circ}}\).

    • Since we can use unitary operations to map any orthonormal basis of \(\mathbb{C}^d\) to any other orthonormal basis, we don’t need the ability to measure in an arbitrary basis \(\{\ket{u_1},\ldots,\ket{u_d}\}\).

      If we let \(U\) be the matrix with \(\ket{u_1},\ldots,\ket{u_d}\) as the columns, then \(U^*\) satisfies \(U^* \ket{u_j} = \ket{j}\), hence we can start with a state \(\ket{\psi}\), map it to \(U^* \ket{\psi}\), measure in the standard basis \(\{\ket{1},\ldots,\ket{d}\}\), and then apply \(U\) to the collapsed state.

      You should check: This is equivalent to measuring \(\ket{\psi}\) in the basis \(\{\ket{u_1},\ldots,\ket{u_d}\}\). In other words, the outcome state is \(\ket{u_j}\) with probability \(|\ip{u_j}{\psi}|^2\).

    • Elitzur-Vaidman bomb detection algorithm:

      • Setup:
        • Input to the box is a quantum state \(\ket{\psi} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\).
        • Dud: Box outputs \(\ket{\psi}\)
        • Bomb: Box measures \(\ket{\psi}\) in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis. If “\(\ket{1}\)” is measured, BOOM. Otherwise the box outputs \(\ket{0}\).
      • Algorithm:
        • Choose an integer \(n \geq 1\) and define \(\varepsilon \seteq \frac{\pi}{2n}\).
        • The initial state is \(\ket{\psi_0} = \ket{0}\).
        • At stage \(1 \leq k \leq n\), we \(\ket{\psi_{k+1}}\) to be the output of the box on the state \(R_{\varepsilon} \ket{\psi_k}\) (assuming it doesn’t expode).
        • At the end, we measure \(\ket{\psi_n}\) in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis. If we measure \(\ket{1}\), we output “Dud” and else output “Bomb.”
      • Analysis:
        • Dud case: Since the box does nothing, we have

          \[\ket{\psi_n} = R_{\varepsilon} R_{\varepsilon} \cdots R_{\varepsilon} \ket{\psi_0} = R_{\varepsilon n} \ket{0} = R_{\pi/2} \ket{0} = \ket{1}\,.\]

          So when we measure \(\ket{\psi_n}\), we see \(\ket{1}\) with 100% probability and correctly output “Dud.”

        • Bomb case: If the box never explodes, then the box always outputs \(\ket{0}\), and therefore \(\ket{\psi_n} = \ket{0}\) and we correctly output “Bomb.”

          So we need only analyze the probability of the bomb going off on input \(R_{\varepsilon} \ket{0} = \cos(\varepsilon) \ket{0} + \sin(\varepsilon) \ket{1}\).

          By the measurement rule, we have

          \[\mathbb{P}[\textrm{measure } \ket{1}] = \mag{\ipop{1}{R_{\varepsilon}}{0}}^2 = \sin(\varepsilon)^2 \leq \varepsilon^2\,.\]

          The final inequality uses the fact that \(\mag{\sin(\varepsilon)} \leq \varepsilon\) for every \(\varepsilon\). Thus in a single iteration, the probability the bomb denoates is at most \(\varepsilon^2\). Now a simple union bound over all \(n\) iterations implies that the probability of the bomb ever detonating is at most

          \[\varepsilon^2 n = \frac{\pi^2}{4n} \leq \frac{2.5}{n}\,.\]

          So if, for instance, we set \(n \seteq 1000\), then we correctly determine whether the box contains a bomb and the probability we accidentally trigger the bomb is at most 0.0025.

    Related videos:

    Tue, Oct 11
    Composite quantum systems
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 1.3; Mermin 1.4-1.6

    • We have seen that the quantum mechanical operations allowed on a quantum state \(\ket{\psi} \in \C^d\) are given by the \(d \times d\) unitary matrices \(U \in \C^{d \times d}\).

    • In the case \(d=2\), examples of single-qubit gates include the real rotation matrices

      \[R_{\theta} \seteq \begin{bmatrix} \cos \theta & -\sin \theta \\ -\sin \theta & \cos \theta \end{bmatrix},\]

      the quantum NOT gate

      \[X \seteq \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix},\]

      and the Hadamard gate

      \[H \seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 \end{bmatrix}.\]
    • We can encode a two-qubit state as a vector \(\ket{\psi} \in \C^4\) using the basis

      \[\{ \ket{00}, \ket{01}, \ket{10}, \ket{11} \} = \left\{ \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \right\}\]
    • Let us consider three different ways of representing the \(2\)-qubit controlled NOT gate \(\mathsf{CNOT}\):

      • We can write it as the matrix

        \[\mathsf{CNOT} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}\]
      • Equivalently, we can express its action on an orthornormal basis:

        \[\begin{align*} \ket{00} & \to \ket{00} \\ \ket{01} & \to \ket{01} \\ \ket{10} & \to \ket{11} \\ \ket{11} & \to \ket{10}. \end{align*}\]

        The first bit is the control bit, and it is simply copied to the output. If the first bit is \(0\), we leave the second bit unchanged. But if the first is \(1\), we perform a NOT on the second bit.

      • Finally, we can write it in the quantum circuit notation:

        Note the suggestive notation: The first bit is passed through unchanged, while the second bit becomes the XOR of the first two bits.

    • Another \(2\)-qubit gate is the swap gate:

      \[\mathsf{SWAP} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}\]

      As the name suggests, this swaps the first and second qubits:

      \[\begin{align*} \ket{00} & \to \ket{00} \\ \ket{01} & \to \ket{10} \\ \ket{10} & \to \ket{01} \\ \ket{11} & \to \ket{11}. \end{align*}\]
    • If we have two qubits \(\ket{\psi},\ket{\phi} \in \C^2\) and we want to apply a \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate to them, we need a way of representing the composite state \(\ket{\psi} \ket{\phi}\) as a vector in \(\C^4\). This will be the tensor product \(\ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\phi}\).

      Our fourth principle of quantum mechanics asserts that if \(\ket{\psi} \in \C^m\) and \(\ket{\phi} \in \C^n\) are two quantum states, then their joint quantum system is described by the state \(\ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\phi} \in \C^{mn}\). Recall that the tensor product of two vectors \(\vec{u} \in \C^m\) and \(\vec{v} \in \C^n\) is the vector \(\vec{u} \otimes \vec{v} \in \C^{m \times n}\) given by \((\vec{u} \otimes \vec{v})_{ij} = u_i v_j\).

    • Examples:

      \[\begin{align*} \ket{0} \otimes \ket{+} &= \ket{0} \otimes \left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\right) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} \otimes \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} \otimes \ket{1} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{01} \\ \ket{+} \otimes \ket{0} &= \left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\right) \otimes \ket{0} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} \otimes \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1} \otimes \ket{0} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{10}. \end{align*}\]

      Note that we have used the shorthand \(\ket{0} \otimes \ket{0} = \ket{00}, \ket{0} \otimes \ket{1} = \ket{01}\), etc. We have also used bilinearity of the tensor product:

      \[\begin{align*} (a+a') \otimes b &= a \otimes b + a' \otimes b \\ a \otimes (b+b') &= a \otimes b + a \otimes b' \\ (\lambda a) \otimes b &= \lambda (a \otimes b) = a \otimes (\lambda b), \quad \forall \lambda \in \C. \end{align*}\]
    • This allows us to evaluate arbitrary quantum circuits. For instance, consider:

      Applying a Hadamard gate to the first qubit yields \(H \ket{0} = \ket{+} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\).

      The tensor product rule tells us that the joint state of the two qubits after the Hadamard gate is given by

      \[\ket{+} \otimes \ket{0} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{10}.\]

      Now we can apply the \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate. By linearity, we can consider its action on each piece \(\ket{00} \mapsto \ket{00}\) and \(\ket{10} \mapsto \ket{11}\), hence the output of the circuit is the state

      \[\ket{\mathrm{bell}} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{11}.\]
    • This is called the Bell state. Its importance lies in the fact that it’s entangled, i.e., there is now way to write \(\ket{\mathrm{bell}} = \ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\phi}\) for single qubit states \(\ket{\psi},\ket{\phi} \in \C^2\).

      Indeed, suppose we could write \(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} = \ket{\mathrm{bell}} = \begin{bmatrix} a_0 \\ a_1 \end{bmatrix} \otimes \begin{bmatrix} b_0 \\ b_1 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} a_0 b_0 \\ a_0 b_1 \\ a_1 b_0 \\ a_1 b_1 \end{bmatrix}\).

      Notice that the product of the first and last entries of the latter vector is \(a_0 b_0 a_1 b_1\), and this is also equal to the product of the two middle entries. Since that property doesn’t hold for \(\ket{\mathrm{bell}}\), no such decomposition is possible.

      A composite state that cannot be written as a tensor product of joint states is said to be entangled.

    • Let’s try one more: (You should verify the calculations!)

      After the first two Hadamard gates, the system is in the state

      \[\ket{+} \otimes \ket{0} \otimes \ket{+} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} \otimes \ket{+} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{10} \otimes \ket{+}.\]

      Now applying the first controlled-NOT gate to the first two qubits yields the state

      \[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} \otimes \ket{+} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{11} \otimes \ket{+} = \frac{1}{2} \ket{000} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{001} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{110} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{111}.\]

      Finally, we want to apply the sceond controlled-NOT gate to the second two qubits. But our joint state is on three qubits. There is a natural way to extend the \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate to three qubits so that it acts as the identity on the first qubit:

      \[\begin{align*} \ket{000} & \to \ket{000} \\ \ket{001} & \to \ket{001} \\ \ket{010} & \to \ket{011} \\ \ket{011} & \to \ket{110} \\ \ket{100} & \to \ket{100} \\ \ket{101} & \to \ket{101} \\ \ket{110} & \to \ket{111} \\ \ket{111} & \to \ket{110}\,. \end{align*}\]

      There is a convenient notation for this operator using the tensor product: \(\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1\end{pmatrix} \otimes \mathsf{CNOT}\). We’ll discuss this in more detail in the next lecture.

      Using linearity, we can apply this operation to every element of the superposition of our qubits, so that the last gate gives us the output of the circuit:

      \[\frac{1}{2} \ket{000} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{001} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{110} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{111} \implies \frac{1}{2} \ket{000} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{011} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{110} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{101}\,.\]
    • Recall that \(\mathsf{NOT}\) and 2-bit \(\mathsf{AND}\) gates are universal for classical computation (Problem 1 on HW1), and \(\mathsf{NOT}\), 2-bit \(\mathsf{AND}\), and \(\mathsf{FLIP}(1/2)\) gates are universal for randomized computation (Problem 2 on HW1).

      Here’s a very useful fact: Single qubit gates and the 2-qubit \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate are universal for quantum computation, in the sense that every unitary \(U \in \mathbb{C}^{2^d \times 2^d}\) can be approximated arbitrarily well by a circuit on \(d\) input qubits consisting only of such gates. (Note: This doesn’t tell us anything about the size of such a circuit!)

    Related videos:

    Thu, Oct 13
    Operations on subsystems and partial measurements
    Lecture recording
    Scribe notes
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 2.2, Mermin 1.7-1.12

    • Tensor products:

      • Note that the defining characteristic of the tensor product is multilinearity, which simply means that for vectors \(v_1 \in \C^{n_1}, v_2 \in \C^{n_2}, \ldots, v_k \in \C^{n_k}\), the expression

        \[v_1 \otimes v_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes v_k\]

        is linear in each vector \(v_i\) so that, for instance,

        \[v_1 \otimes (u_2 + v_2) \otimes \cdots \otimes v_k = v_1 \otimes u_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes v_k + v_1 \otimes v_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes v_k.\]

        Note that this is just like how normal multiplication distributes over addition. But do note that tensor products are definitely not commutative: The vectors \(v_1 \otimes v_2\) and \(v_2 \otimes v_1\) are not equal unless \(v_1 = v_2\).

      • Given matrices \(A_1 \in \C^{m_1 \times n_1}, A_2 \in \C^{m_2 \times n_2}, \cdots, A_k \in \C^{m_k \times n_k}\), we can form the tensor product

        \[A_1 \otimes A_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes A_k\]

        One can think of this object in various way, e.g., we can meaningfully write

        \[(A_1 \otimes A_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes A_k)_{i_1 j_1, i_2 j_2, \ldots, i_k j_k} = (A_1)_{i_1 j_1} (A_2)_{i_2 j_2} \cdots (A_k)_{i_k j_k},\]

        thinking of this as a multidimensional array of \(m_1 \cdot n_1 \cdot m_2 \cdot n_2 \cdots m_k \cdot n_k\) numbers. It is most useful to think of it as a linear map taking vectors in \(\C^{n_1} \otimes \C^{n_2} \otimes \cdots \otimes \C^{n_k}\) to vectors in \(\C^{m_1} \otimes \C^{m_2} \otimes \cdots \otimes \C^{m_k}\), where the map is applied just as you would expect:

        \[(A_1 \otimes A_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes A_k) (v_1 \otimes v_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes v_k) =A_1 v_1 \otimes A_2 v_2 \otimes \cdots \otimes A_k v_k.\]
    • Unitaries acting on subsystems: Recall this quantum circuit from the previous lecture.

      Just before the last \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate, the 3-qubit state is

      \[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} \otimes \ket{+} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{11} \otimes \ket{+} = \frac{1}{2} \ket{000} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{001} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{110} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{111}.\]

      The last \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate acts only on the last two qubits, but we need to define its action on a 3-qubit state. Our fifth principle of quantum mechanics tells us how to applying a unitary to a subsystem affects the entire state.

      Note that, by linearity, we need only understand its action on each of the basis states \(\ket{000}\), \(\ket{001}\), \(\ket{110}\), and \(\ket{111}\).

      Recall that \(\ket{001} = \ket{0} \otimes \ket{01}\). The fifth princple says that to apply the \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate to the last two bits, we just act in that component of the tensor product:

      \[\ket{0} \otimes \ket{01} \mapsto \ket{0} \otimes \mathsf{CNOT} \ket{01} = \ket{0} \otimes \ket{11}.\]

      Equivalently, in order to apply \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) to the last two qubits, we apply the matrix \(I \otimes \mathsf{CNOT}\) to the entire 3-qubit state, where \(I\) is the identity matrix on the first qubit.

      Thus this circuit outputs the state

      \[\frac{1}{2} \ket{000} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{011} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{110} + \frac{1}{2} \ket{101}.\]
    • Note that there is no reason that the \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) needs to act on “adjacent” qubits (adjacency here is just an artifact of how we drew the circuits). We could equally well consider a circuit where the final \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate acts on the first and third qubits:

      You should check that the output state is

      \[\frac12 \ket{000} + \frac12 \ket{101} + \frac12 \ket{110} + \frac12 \ket{011}.\]

      It is a coincidence that these two circuits give the same output on input \(\ket{000}\). (It is not true that they give the same output for every input.)

    • Partial measurements:

      Suppose that we have a 2-qubit state

      \[\alpha_{00} \ket{00} + \alpha_{01} \ket{01} + \alpha_{10} \ket{10} + \alpha_{11} \ket{11}.\]

      Suppose also that Alice takes the first qubit, Bob takes the second, and then Alice measures her qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis. The new joint state is given by the Born rule, which agrees with the standard notion of conditional probabilities. With probability \(p_0 \seteq |\alpha_{00}|^2 + |\alpha_{01}|^2\), Alice measures outcome “0” and the joint state collapses to

      \[\frac{\alpha_{00}}{\sqrt{p_0}} \ket{00} + \frac{\alpha_{01}}{\sqrt{p_0}} \ket{01} = \ket{0} \otimes \left(\frac{\alpha_{00}}{\sqrt{p_0}} \ket{0} + \frac{\alpha_{01}}{\sqrt{p_0}} \ket{1}\right),\]

      and with probability \(p_1 \seteq |\alpha_{10}|^2 + \alpha_{11}|^2\), Alice measures outcome “1” and the joint state collapses to

      \[\frac{\alpha_{10}}{\sqrt{p_1}} \ket{10} + \frac{\alpha_{11}}{\sqrt{p_1}} \ket{11} = \ket{1} \otimes \left(\frac{\alpha_{10}}{\sqrt{p_1}} \ket{0} + \frac{\alpha_{11}}{\sqrt{p_1}} \ket{1}\right),\]

    Related videos:

    Basics of quantum information
    Tue, Oct 18
    Bell's theorem and the EPR paradox
    Lecture recording
    Scribe notes
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 2.6

    • The CHSH game can be described as follows: There are three participants: Alice, Bob, and a Referee. The Referee chooses two uniformly random bits \(x,y \in \{0,1\}\) and sends \(x\) to Alice and \(y\) to Bob. Alice outputs a bit \(A(x)\) and Bob outputs a bit \(B(y)\), and their goal is to achieve the outcome

      \[\begin{equation}\label{eq:goal} A(x) \oplus B(y) = x \wedge y. \end{equation}\]

      It is easy to check that for any of the 16 pairs of strategies for Alice and Bob, described by functions \(A,B : \{0,1\} \to \{0,1\}\), there must be at least one choice \(x,y \in \{0,1\}\) that fails to achieve the goal \eqref{eq:goal}. Thus the maximum success probability for Alice and Bob is at most \(3/4 = 75\%\).

    • Even if Alice and Bob have shared random bits, they cannot achieve better than \(75\%\). Indeed, let \(\mathbf{r} = r_1 r_2 \ldots r_m\) be a string of random bits, then for every fixed choice of \(r\), we have \(\mathbb{P}_{x,y}[A_r(x) = B_r(y)] \leq 3/4.\) So this still holds whene we average over the random string \(\mathbf{r}\).

    • It turns out that if Alice and Bob share an EPR pair \(\ket{\psi} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (\ket{00}+\ket{11})\), then they can do strictly better than just by using shared randomness: They can achieve success probability

      \[\left(\cos \frac{\pi}{8}\right)^2 = \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{2\sqrt{2}} \approx 0.853\cdots.\]
    • The protocol is as follows:

      • Alice:

        • \(x=0\): Alice measures her qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis and outputs a bit according to her measurement:

          \[\begin{align*} \ket{0} &\mapsto A = 0\,, \\ \ket{1} &\mapsto A = 1\,. \end{align*}\]
        • \(x=1\): Alice measures her qubit in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis and outputs a bit according to her measurement:

          \[\begin{align*} \ket{+} \mapsto A = 0\,, \\ \ket{-} \mapsto A = 1\,. \end{align*}\]
      • Bob:

        • \(y=0\): Bob measures his qubit in the basis \(\{\ket{a_0},\ket{a_1}\}\) and outputs \(B=0\) or \(B=1\), respectively.

          \[\begin{align*} \ket{a_0} &= \left(\cos \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{0} + \left(\sin \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{1}\,, \\ \ket{a_1} &=\left(-\sin \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{0} + \left(\cos \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{1}\,. \end{align*}\]

          Equivalently, this is the standard basis rotated by \(\pi/8\).

        • \(y=1\): Bob measures his qubit in the basis \(\{\ket{b_0},\ket{b_1}\}\) and outputs \(B=0\) or \(B=1\), respectively.

          \[\begin{align*} \ket{b_0} &= \left(\cos \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{0} - \left(\sin \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{1}\,, \\ \ket{b_1} &=\left(\sin \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{0} + \left(\cos \frac{\pi}{8}\right) \ket{1}\,. \end{align*}\]

          Equivalently, this is the standard basis rotated by \(-\pi/8\).

    • For example, let’s analyze the success probability in the case \(x=y=0\). Since \(x \wedge y = 0\), we need \(A = B\), i.e., we need the measurement outcomes \(\ket{0},\ket{a_0}\) or \(\ket{1},\ket{a_1}\).

      With probability \(1/2\), Alice measures \(\ket{0}\) and Bob’s qubit collapses to the state \(\ket{0}\). Then the probability he measures \(\ket{a_0}\) is \(|\ip{a_0}{0}|^2 = (\cos \frac{\pi}{8})^2\).

      With probability \(1/2\), Alice measures \(\ket{1}\) and Bob’s qubit collapses to the state \(\ket{1}\). Then the probability he measures \(\ket{a_1}\) is \(|\ip{a_1}{1}|^2 = (\cos \frac{\pi}{8})^2\).

      Hence the overall success probability is \((\cos \frac{\pi}{8})^2\).

    • As an exercise, you should try repeating the analysis from lecture for the other three cases. For the case where \(x=1\), it helps to verify first that the EPR pair can equivalently be written as

      \[\ket{\psi} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{++} + \ket{--}\right).\]
    • The famous Tsirelson inequality shows that no quantum strategy can do better than \((\cos \frac{\pi}{8})^2\).

    • Some philosophical discussion around the EPR paradox and Bell’s theorem

    • Experimental validation:

    Related videos:

    Thu, Oct 20
    The No-Cloning Theorem
    Lecture recording
    Scribe notes
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 12.1; Mermin 2.1

    • No-cloning Theorem: There is no quantum operation that starts with a state \(\ket{\psi}\) and outputs two copies \(\ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\psi}\).

      More formally, there is no quantum circuit that takes as input a qubit \(\ket{\psi} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) along with ancilliary bits \(\ket{0000\cdots 0}\) and outputs a state \(\ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\mathrm{garbage}}\) where the first two qubits are copies of \(\ket{\psi}\).

      Note that a \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) successfully copies the control bits \(\ket{0}\) and \(\ket{1}\) when the other input is \(\ket{0}\):

      \[\begin{align*} \mathsf{CNOT} \ket{0} \ket{0} &= \ket{0} \ket{0}\,, \\ \mathsf{CNOT} \ket{1} \ket{0} &= \ket{1} \ket{1}\,. \end{align*}\]

      On the other hand, \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) fails to copy \(\ket{+}\):

      \[\mathsf{CNOT} \ket{+} \ket{0} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{00} + \ket{11}\right).\]

      As we know, this is not a tensor product state. To successfully clone, we wanted to get the state

      \[\ket{+}\ket{+} = \frac12 \left(\ket{00}+\ket{01}+\ket{10}+\ket{11}\right).\]
    • Proof of the No-Cloning Theorem:

      Suppose we have a quantum circuit without intermediate measurements that clones an input qubit. (We will see later in the course that measurements can always be deferred to the end of a quantum computation. This is called the Principle of Deferred Measurement.)

      Consider its operation on \(\ket{0}\),\(\ket{1}\), and \(\ket{+}\):

      \[\begin{align} \ket{0} \ket{00\cdots0} &\mapsto \ket{0} \ket{0} \otimes \ket{f(0)} \label{eq:f0} \\ \ket{1} \ket{00\cdots0} &\mapsto \ket{1} \ket{1} \otimes \ket{f(1)} \label{eq:f1} \\ \ket{+} \ket{00\cdots0} &\mapsto \ket{+} \ket{+} \otimes \ket{f(+)}\,, \label{eq:f2} \\ \end{align}\]

      where \(f(0),f(1),f(+)\) are some arbitrary states depending on the input. Then since the circuit must correspond to multiplication by a unitary matrix, it must act linearly, and by \(\eqref{eq:f0}\) and \(\eqref{eq:f1}\), its output on \(\ket{+} \ket{00\cdots0} = \left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0}+ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\right)\ket{00\cdots0}\) must be equal to

      \[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{0} \ket{0} \ket{f(0)} + \ket{1} \ket{1} \ket{f(1)}\right).\]

      But this can never be equal to the RHS of \(\eqref{eq:f2}\) since

      \[\ket{+} \ket{+} \otimes \ket{f(+)} = \frac{1}{2} \left(\ket{00}+\ket{01}+\ket{10}+\ket{11} \right) \ket{f(+)}.\]

      (Two see that these two states cannot be equal, considering measuring the first two qubits.)

    • The No-Cloning Theorem implies that it is impossible to learn the amplitudes of a qubit \(\ket{\psi} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) since if we knew \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\), we could build a circuit that, on input \(\ket{0}\), would output \(\ket{\psi}\). And then we could make as many copies of \(\ket{\psi}\) as we wanted. Just for review, note that the following single qubit unitary gate maps \(\ket{0}\) to \(\ket{\psi}\):

      \[\begin{bmatrix} \alpha & -\beta \\ \beta & \alpha \end{bmatrix} \ket{0} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta\ket{1}.\]
    • Quantum tomography studies the best way to learn a quantum state \(\ket{\psi}\) given many copies \(\ket{\psi} \otimes \ket{\psi} \otimes \cdots \otimes \ket{\psi}\).

    Related videos:

    Tue, Oct 25
    Quantum teleportation
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 1.3.7; Mermin 6.5

    • Quantum teleportation: This is the idea that if Alice and Bob share an EPR pair \(\ket{\mathrm{bell}} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (\ket{00}+\ket{11})\), then Alice can “teleport” an arbitrary qubit state to Bob by sending him only two bits of classical information.

      Here is a sketch: Alice has the qubit state \(\ket{\psi} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) and the first qubit of the EPR pair \(\ket{\mathrm{bell}}\), and Bob has the second qubit of \(\ket{\mathrm{bell}}\).

      Alice first applies a \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate to her two qubits and the state evolves as

      \[(\alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}) \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{00}+\ket{11}\right) \mapsto \frac{\alpha}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} \left(\ket{00} + \ket{11}\right) + \frac{\beta}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1} \left(\ket{10} + \ket{01}\right)\]

      She then applies a Hadamard gate to her first qubit, giving the state

      \[\begin{align*} \frac{1}{2} \ket{00} &\left(\alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\right) + \\ \frac{1}{2} \ket{01} &\left(\beta \ket{0} + \alpha \ket{1}\right) + \\ \frac{1}{2} \ket{10} &\left(\alpha \ket{0} - \beta \ket{1}\right) + \\ \frac{1}{2} \ket{11} &\left(-\beta \ket{0} + \alpha \ket{1}\right)\,.\\ \end{align*}\]

      Alice now measures her two qubits, giving each of the four outcomes \(\{00,01,10,11\}\) with probability \(1/4\). Bob’s state collapses to one of the four options above, and when he receives the message from Alice, it tells him which unitary he can apply to convert his state to \(\alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\)!

      For example, if the messages is \(00\), he just applies the identity. If the message is \(01\), he applies the unitary \(\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}\), etc.

    Related videos:

    Thu, Oct 27
    Quantum money

    • A scheme for quantum money: The No-Cloning Theorem suggests that we might be able to achieve true “copy protection” using properties of quantum states. As an example, we can try to design a scheme for making “coins” that can be verified as real, but not copied.

    • In class we studied the Wiesner scheme, where the bank chooses uniformly at random a serial number \(s \in \{0,1\}^n\) and a string \(q \in \{0,1,+,-\}^n\) and constructs the state

      \[\ket{\psi} = \ket{q_1} \ket{q_2} \cdots \ket{q_n}.\]

      The coin is then the pair \((s,\ket{\psi})\).

    • The bank verifies the coin by measuring every qubit of \(\psi\) in either the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis (for \(q_i \in \{0,1\}\)) or the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis (for \(q_i \in \{+,-\}\)) and checking that the answer is equal to \(q_i\).

    • We saw that in this scheme, the bank should not return coins that have been verified as valid, since otherwise there is a clever attack to learn the state \(\ket{\psi}\). The attack is similar to detecting the Elitzur-Vaidman bomb.

      Let \(R_{\varepsilon} = \begin{bmatrix} \cos(\varepsilon) & \sin(\varepsilon) \\ -\sin(\varepsilon) & \cos(\varepsilon) \end{bmatrix}\) be a rotation by angle \(\varepsilon\). Choose a sufficiently large even number \(k\) and take \(\varepsilon = \frac{\pi}{2k}\).

      The attacker tries to learn each qubit of \(\ket{\psi}\) in succession. Consider \(\ket{q_1}\). The attacker introduces an auxiliary qubit that starts in the \(\ket{0}\) state, so the system is \(\ket{0} \ket{q_1}\).

      Then the attacker repeats the following \(k\) times:

      • Apply \(R_{\varepsilon}\) to the first qubit, and a \(\mathsf{CNOT}\) gate to the pair, where the first bit is the control bit.

      • Ask the bank to verify \(\ket{\psi}\).

    • Consider the the four cases:

      • If \(\ket{q_1} = \ket{0}\), a single round yields the state

        \[\cos(\varepsilon) \ket{00} + \sin(\varepsilon) \ket{11}.\]

        When the bank measures the second qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis, it detects fraud with probility \(\sin(\varepsilon)^2 \leq \varepsilon^2\), and otherwise measures \(\ket{0}\) and the state collapses to the initial state \(\ket{00}\).

        If fraud is not detected for \(k\) rounds, the resulting state is \(\ket{00}\).

      • If \(\ket{q_1} = \ket{1}\), a single round yields the state

        \[\cos(\varepsilon) \ket{01} + \sin(\varepsilon) \ket{10}.\]

        When the bank measures the second qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis, it detects fraud with probility \(\sin(\varepsilon)^2 \leq \varepsilon^2\), and otherwise measures \(\ket{1}\) and the state collapses to the initial state \(\ket{01}\).

        If fraud is not detected for \(k\) rounds, the resulting state is \(\ket{01}\).

      • If \(\ket{q_1} = \ket{-}\), a single round yields the state

        \[\cos(\varepsilon) \ket{0,-} - \sin(\varepsilon) \ket{1,-}.\]

        When the bank measures the second qubit in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis, it always gets the correct outcome \(\ket{+}\), and the state collapses to \(R_{-\varepsilon} \ket{0} \ket{-}\).

        In the next round, we first apply \(R_{\varepsilon}\), yielding \(\ket{0} \ket{-}\). The bank measures the second qubit correctly, and the state collapses to \(\ket{0} \ket{-}\). Therefore after \(k\) rounds (recall that \(k\) is even!), the resulting state is \(\ket{0} \ket{+}\).

      • If \(\ket{q_1} = \ket{+}\), a single round yields the state

        \[\cos(\varepsilon) \ket{0,+} + \sin(\varepsilon) \ket{1,+}.\]

        When the bank measures the second qubit in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis, it always gets the correct outcome \(\ket{+}\), and the state collapses to \(R_{\varepsilon} \ket{0} \ket{+}\).

        After \(k\) rounds, we have applied a rotation by \(k \cdot \varepsilon = \frac{\pi}{2}\), hence the resulting state is \(\ket{1} \ket{+}\).

    • If we are not caught cheating, then after all \(k\) rounds, we can measure the first bit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis and with certainty determine whether \(q_1 = +\) or \(q_1 \neq +\).

      Our chance of being caught is at most \(\varepsilon^2 k = \frac{1}{k} \left(\frac{\pi}{2}\right)^2\). By slighty modifying the protocol (exercise: what’s the modification?), we can also test whether \(q_1 = -\). If neither of these is true, we know that we can measure \(\ket{q_1}\) in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) and determine its value with certainty.

      So we can determine \(q_1\) with a probability of at most \(2 \varepsilon^2 k = \frac{1}{k} \frac{\pi^2}{2}\) of getting caught.

      Now repeat this for every qubit \(\ket{q_i}\). We determine all the values with at most a \(\frac{n}{k} \frac{\pi^2}{2}\) chance of getting caught. So by setting \(k = 1000 n\) (say), we can successfully learn \(\ket{\psi}\) with less than a half percent chance we are caught. (And then we can make as many copies of \((s,\ket{\psi})\) as we like!)

    Related videos:

    Tue, Nov 01
    Mixed states
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 2.4.1

    • We have already seen that the following two circuits are equivalent:

      Equivalent here means that on the same input state \(\ket{\psi}\), they yield the same output \((U \otimes V) \ket{\psi}\). This follows from the rule for multiplying tensors of operators, and the fact that the identity commutes with every operator:

      \[(I \otimes V) (U \otimes I) = U \otimes V = (U \otimes I) (I \otimes V).\]
    • Suppose we consider the same question for measurements, as in the circuit

    • It is important to note that the output of this circuit cannot be described as a pure quantum state, only as a distribution over states.

      On input \(\ket{\psi} \in \C^2 \otimes \C^2\), the measurement operator produces output

      \[\frac{(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|^2\] \[\frac{(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|^2\]

      This is called a mixed state. The system’s state at the purple dotted line is a probability distribution over pure states.

    • If we then apply the \(V\) gate, corresponding to the operator \(I \otimes V\), we arrive at

      \[\frac{(I \otimes V) (\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} = \frac{(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|^2\] \[\frac{(I \otimes V) (\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} = \frac{(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes I) \ket{\psi}\|^2\]
    • Note that $I \otimes V$ is a unitary operator, therefore it preserves the lengths of vectors, and we can equivalently write this as

      \[\frac{(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{0} \bra{0} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}\|^2\] \[\frac{(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}}{\|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}\|} \qquad \textrm{with probability } \|(\ket{1} \bra{1} \otimes V) \ket{\psi}\|^2\]

      In this way, one can see that, as in the first example, the order of application of the measurement gate and the unitary gate \(V\) can be interchanged (since they act separately on each qubit).

    • We will discuss mixed states in greater detail later in the course, along with the essential tool of density matrices. This notion is somewhat less relevant for basic quantum algorithms. For instance, the Mermin book only contains pure states. In Problem #3 on Homework #3), you will show that all measurements can be deferred to the end of a computation.

    • But already we can observe a subtlety: What does it mean for two mixed states to be equivalent? For instance, consider the two mixed states:

      • $\ket{0}$ with probability $\tfrac12$
        $\ket{1}$ with probability $\frac12$
      • $\ket{+}$ with probability $\tfrac12$
        $\ket{-}$ with probability $\frac12$

    • In some sense, these are clearly different. But is there any measurement that can distinguish them? I.e., is there any measurement such that the output distribution is different in the two settings?

      There is no obvious choice. For instance, if we measure in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis, we see both outcomes with probability \(1/2\). The situation is the same if we measure in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis. It’s not too difficult to check that this remains true if we measure in any basis: We will get the same distribution on outcomes. As we’ll discuss later in the course, these two mixed states are considered to be the same.

    • We can carry this a bit further. Consider an entangled pair \(\ket{\psi} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{00} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{11}\).

      Suppose that Alice possesses the first qubit and Bob the second. If Bob measures his qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis, we obtain a mixed state:

      \[\ket{00} \ \textrm{with probability } \frac12\] \[\ket{11} \ \textrm{with probability } \frac12\]

      With no communication between Alice and Bob, she should not be able to figure out whether Bob measured, and thus Alice should not be able to distinguish holding the first qubit of the pure state \(\ket{\psi}\) from holding the first qubit of this mixed state. In that sense, partial information about a quantum system is equivalent to that system being in a mixed state.

    • But one should be careful to note that \(\ket{\psi}\) is not equivalent to the mixed state. If Alice has access to both qubits, she could apply the unitary transformation \((H \otimes I) \mathsf{CNOT}\). When applied to the mixed state, the result is

      \[\ket{+}\ket{0} \ \textrm{with probability } \frac12\] \[\ket{-}\ket{1} \textrm{with probability } \frac12\]

      On the other hand,

      \[(H \otimes I) \mathsf{CNOT} \ket{\psi} = \ket{00}\,.\]

    Quantum algorithms
    Thu, Nov 03
    Bernstein-Vazirani
    Suggested reading:
    Mermin 2.1-2.4

    • Definition: If \(F : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^m\) is a function from \(n\) bits to \(m\) bits, then a quantum circuit \(Q_F\) implementing \(F\) is one that maps

      \[\begin{equation}\label{eq:standard} Q_F : \ket{x} \ket{y} \ket{00\cdots 0} \mapsto \ket{x} \ket{y \oplus F(x)} \ket{00\cdots 0}, \end{equation}\]

      Here, \(\oplus\) represents the bitwise exclusive-or operation. The first register is on \(n\) qubits, and the third register is on \(m\) qubits. The additional \(0\) qubits are called ancillas. The size of the circuit is the number of basic quantum gates.

    • If \(F : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^m\) is computed by a classical circuit with \(g\) gates, then there is a quantum circuit implementing \(F\) that uses only \(O(g)\) gates.

    • Suppose we have a function \(f : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}\) with only a single output bit. We say that a quantum circuit \(Q_f^{\pm}\) sign-implements \(f\), if it maps

      \[Q^{\pm}_f : \ket{x} \ket{00\cdots0} \mapsto (-1)^{f(x)} \ket{x} \ket{00\cdots 0}.\]
    • If \(Q_f\) denotes a standard implementation of \(f\) (as in \eqref{eq:standard}), then we can construct a sign implementation as:

      In other words, instead of taking \(y=0\) in \eqref{eq:standard}, we use \(y=\ket{-}\). The result is:

      \[Q_f : \ket{x} \ket{-} \ket{00 \cdots 0} \mapsto \ket{x} \frac{\ket{f(x)} - \ket{\neg f(x)}}{\sqrt{2}} = (-1)^{f(x)} \ket{x} \ket{-} \ket{00 \cdots 0}.\]

      Then after applying \(Q_f\), we apply a Hadamard gate followed by a NOT gate to transform \(\ket{-}\) into \(\ket{0}\).

    • The Bernstein-Vazirani problem: Here we are given a function \(f : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}\) and promised that

      \[f(x) = \left(x_1 s_1 + x_2 s_2 + \cdots + x_n s_n\right) \bmod 2.\]

      for some hidden vector \(s \in \{0,1\}^n\). The goal is to learn \(s\) by evaluating \(f\).

    • This can be done classically by using \(n\) queries, since \(f(e_1)=s_1,f(e_2)=s_2,\cdots,f(e_n)=s_n\), where \(e_i\) is the vector with a \(1\) in the \(i\)th coordinate and zeros elsewhere. And it is not hard to see that this is the smallest possible number of queries that will always recover \(s\).

    • Here is a quantum circuit that evaluates \(f\) only once (with its input in superposition!) and outputs the hidden vector \(s\) with certainty:

      This output of the circuit can be summarized as \(H^{\otimes n} Q_f^{\pm} H^{\otimes n} \ket{00\cdots 0}\), where \(H^{\otimes n} = H \otimes H \otimes \cdots \otimes H\) is an \(n\)-fold tensor product of Hadamard matrices, and \(Q_f^{\pm}\) is a sign-implementation of \(f : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}\).

    • Analysis: After the first set of Hadamard gates, the overall state is

      \[\begin{align*} H^{\otimes n} \ket{00\cdots 0} &= (H \ket{0}) \otimes (H \ket{0}) \otimes \cdots \otimes (H \ket{0}) \\ &= \left(\frac{\ket{0}+\ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \cdots \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0}+\ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \\ &= 2^{-n/2} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} \ket{x}. \end{align*}\]

      After applying \(Q_f^{\pm}\), the result is

      \[\begin{equation}\label{eq:sup15} 2^{-n/2} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{f(x)} \ket{x}. \end{equation}\]

      To apply \(H^{\otimes n}\) to this state, it helps to observe that for \(x \in \{0,1\}^n\),

      \[H^{\otimes n} \ket{x} = 2^{-n/2} \sum_{y \in \{0,1\}^n} \left(-1\right)^{x_1 y_1 + x_2 y_2 + \cdots + x_n y_n} \ket{y}.\]

      Therefore applying \(H^{\otimes n}\) to \eqref{eq:sup15} gives

      \[\begin{align} 2^{-n} \sum_{x,y \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{f(x)} (-1)^{x_1 y_1 + \cdots + x_n y_n} \ket{y} &= 2^{-n} \sum_{x,y \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{x_1 s_1 + \cdots + x_n s_n} (-1)^{x_1 y_1 + \cdots + x_n y_n} \ket{y} \nonumber \\ &= 2^{-n} \sum_{x,y \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{x_1 (s_1+y_1) + \cdots + x_n (s_n+y_n)}\ket{y}. \label{eq:sup16} \end{align}\]

      Now note that for any fixed value of \(y\), we have

      \[\sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{x_1 (s_1+y_1) + x_n (s_n+y_n)} = \begin{cases} 0 & y \neq s \\ 1 & y = s. \end{cases}\]

      This equality holds because if \(s_i=y_i\), then \((s_i+y_i)\bmod 2 = 0\), and regardless of the value of \(x_i \in \{0,1\}\), we have \((-1)^{x_i (s_i+y_i)} = 1\). On the other hand, if \(s_i \neq y_i\), then \((s_i+y_i)\bmod 2 = 1\), and \((-1)^{x_i(s_i+y_i)} = (-1)^{x_i}\), meaning that the terms corresponding to \(x_i=0\) and \(x_i=1\) have opposite signs and cancel out.

      Therefore the output of the circuit \eqref{eq:sup16} is precisely \(\ket{s}\), revealing the hidden string \(s\).

    Tue, Nov 08
    Simon's algorithm
    Suggested reading:
    Mermin 2.5

    • Simon’s problem: Consider a function \(F : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^m\) that is \(L\)-periodic in the sense that for some \(L \in \{0,1\}^n\) with \(L \neq 00\cdots 0\), it holds that

      \[F(x \oplus L) = F(x),\]

      where \(x \oplus L\) is bitwise XOR, and moreover, we assume that \(F(x)=F(y) \iff y = x \oplus L\).

      The problem is: Given access to a quantum circuit \(Q_F\) implementing \(F\), to determine \(L\) using as few copies of \(Q_F\) as possible.

    • If we are only given a classical circuit \(C_F\) computing \(F\), it turns out this problem is pretty difficult: At least \(\Omega(2^{n/2})\) copies of \(C_F\) are needed to build a probabilistic circuit that recovers \(L\) with high probability.

    • Simon’s algorithm allows us to do this with a quantum algorithm that requires only \(4n\) copies of \(Q_F\), an exponential improvement!

    • To accomplish this, we prepare the state

      \[2^{-n/2} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} \ket{x} \ket{F(x)}.\]
    • Then we measure the qubits in the answer register. By definition of \(L\)-periodic, each possible value \(F(x)=y\) occurs twice, since \(F(x)=F(x+L)=y\). The probability of measuring \(y\) is \(2^{-n+1}\), and then our state collapses to

      \[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{x} \ket{y} + \ket{x+L} \ket{y}\right) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{x} + \ket{x+L} \right) \otimes \ket{y}\]
    • After discarding the measured register (which is unentangled with the input register), we are left with the state \(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{x}+\ket{x+L}\right)\). Clearly if we knew both \(x\) and \(x+L\), then we could take their bitwise XOR and recover \(L\).

    • Now we apply the Quantum Fourier transform again to this state, obtaining

      \[\begin{align*} H^{\otimes n} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\ket{x}+\ket{x+L}\right) &= \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left(2^{-n/2} \sum_{s \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{x \cdot s} \ket{s} + 2^{-n/2}\sum_{s \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{(x+L)\cdot s} \ket{s}\right) \\ &= 2^{-(n+1)/2} \sum_{s \in \{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{x \cdot s} \left(1+(-1)^{L \cdot s}\right)\ket{s} \\ &= 2^{-(n-1)/2} \sum_{s : L \cdot s \bmod 2 = 0} (-1)^{x \cdot s} \ket{s}. \end{align*}\]
    • When we measure this qubit, the outcome is a uniformly random string \(s \in \{0,1\}^n\) such that \(s \cdot L \bmod 2 = 0\).

    • Suppose we sample \(n-1\) such strings \(s^{(1)},s^{(2)},\ldots,s^{(n-1)}\) satisfying \(s^{(j)} \cdot L = 0\). If these \(n-1\) vectors are linearly independent over \(\mathbb{F}_2\), then the system of linear equations

      \[A = \begin{bmatrix} s^{(1)} \\ s^{(2)} \\ \vdots \\ s^{(n-1)} \end{bmatrix}, \quad A y = 0\]

      has exactly two solutions (over \(\mathbb{F}_2\)): \(y=0\) and \(y=L\), and we can find the solution \(y=L\) by (classical) Gaussian elimination.

    • Claim: With probability at least \(1/4\), it holds that \(s^{(1)},s^{(2)},\ldots,s^{(n-1)}\) are linearly independent over \(\mathbb{F}_2\), meaning that with probability at least \(1/4\), we recover the hidden period \(L\).

    • Proof: If \(s^{(1)},\ldots,s^{(j)}\) are linearly independent, then they span a \(j\)-dimensional subspace in \(\mathbb{F}_2^n\), which has \(2^j\) vectors, hence

      \[\mathbb{P}\left[s^{(j+1)} \notin \mathrm{span}(s^{(1)},\ldots,s^{(j)})\right] = 1 - \frac{2^j}{2^{n-1}},\]

      and

      \[\begin{align*} \mathbb{P}\left[s^{(1)},s^{(2)},\ldots,s^{(n-1)} \textrm{ linearly independent}\right] &= \left(1-\frac{2^0}{2^{n-1}}\right) \left(1-\frac{2^1}{2^{n-1}}\right) \cdots \left(1-\frac{2^{n-2}}{2^{n-1}}\right) \\ &\geq \frac12 \left(1-\frac{1}{4}-\frac{1}{8}-\cdots\right) \\ &= \frac{1}{4}\,. \end{align*}\]

    Related videos:

    Tue, Nov, 15
    The quantum Fourier transform
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 5.1-5.2

    • The Quantum Fourier transform \(\mathbb{Z}_2^n\)
      Define \(N \seteq 2^n\) and given \(g : \{0,1\}^n \to \mathbb{C}\) with \(\mathbb{E}_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} |g(x)|^2 = 1\), encode \(g\) as the quantum state

      \[\ket{g} \seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} g(x) \ket{x}.\]

      Then applying \(H^{\otimes n}\) gives \(H^{\otimes n} \ket{g} = \sum_{s \in \{0,1\}^n} \hat{g}(s) \ket{s}\), where

      \[\hat{g}(s) = \mathbb{E}_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} g(x) (-1)^{s \cdot x}.\]

      In other words, \(H^{\otimes n}\) implements the Fourier transform over \(\mathbb{Z}_2^n\). Equivalently, \(H^{\otimes n}\) maps the Fourier basis \(\{ \ket{\chi_s} : s \in \{0,1\}^n \}\) to the computational basis \(\{ \ket{x} : x \in \{0,1\}^n \}\), where \(\chi_s(x) \seteq (-1)^{s \cdot x}\) and we similarly encode

      \[\ket{\chi_s} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} \chi_S(x) \ket{x}.\]

      In this notation, we can write \(\hat{g}(s) = \ip{\chi_s}{g}\).

    • The Quantum Fourier transform over \(\mathbb{Z}_N\)

      We use \(\mathbb{Z}_N\) to denote the integers modulo \(N\). Given \(g : \mathbb{Z}_N \to \mathbb{C}\) with \(\mathbb{E}_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_N} |g(x)|^2 = 1\), we can similarly encode \(g\) as a quantum state:

      \[\ket{g} \seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_N} g(x) \ket{x}.\]

      Now the Fourier basis is given by the functions

      \[\chi_s(x) \seteq \omega_N^{s x}, \quad s \in \mathbb{Z}_N,\]

      where \(\omega_N \seteq e^{2\pi i/N}\) is a primitive \(N\)th root of unity. These functions can similarly be encoded as quantum states:

      \[\ket{\chi_s} \seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_n} \chi_s(x) \ket{x}.\]

      You should verify that the vectors \(\{ \ket{\chi_s} : s \in \mathbb{Z}_N \}\) actually form an orthonormal basis of \(\mathbb{C}^N\).

      The quantum Fourier transform is given by the unitary map

      \[\ket{g} \mapsto \sum_{s \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \ip{\chi_s}{g} \ket{s} = \sum_{s \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \left(\mathbb{E}_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \left[\omega_N^{-sx} g(x)\right]\right)\ket{s},\]

      where we have used the fact that the complex conjugate of \(\omega_N\) is \(\bar{\omega}_N = \omega_N^{-1} = e^{-2\pi i/N}\).

    • An efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform over \(\mathbb{Z}_N\)

      Assume now that \(N = 2^n\) for some \(n \geq 1\) and define \(\omega \seteq \omega_N = e^{2\pi i/N}\).

      The Fourier transform over \(\mathbb{Z}_2^n\) could be implemented using only \(O(n)\) quantum gates. A related implementation is possible over \(\mathbb{Z}_N\). We need to implement the unitary change of basis:

      \[\mathsf{DFT}_N \ket{x} = \sum_{s \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \ip{\chi_s}{x} \ket{s}.\]

      Let us write in binary \(x = x_{n-1} x_{n-2} \cdots x_1 x_0\). Then we have

      \[\mathsf{DFT}_N \ket{x} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{s \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \bar{\omega}^{s x} \ket{s},\]

      and we can write this as the tensor product

      \[\left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{2^{n-1} x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{2^{n-2} x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \cdots \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{2 x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right).\]

      Let us write this as \(\ket{s_{n-1}} \otimes \ket{s_{n-2}} \otimes \cdots \otimes \ket{s_1} \otimes \ket{s_0}\), and then it suffices to produce a circuit where the output wires carry each \(\ket{s_j}\).

    • The case \(N=16\). It is instructive to do this for a fixed value, say \(N=16\). Then we have

      \[\begin{align*} \mathsf{DFT}_{16} \ket{x} &= \frac{1}{4} \left(\ket{0000} + \bar{\omega}^{x} \ket{0001} + \bar{\omega}^{2x} \ket{0010} + \bar{\omega}^{3x} \ket{0011} + \cdots + \bar{\omega}^{15x} \ket{1111}\right) \\ &= \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{8 x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{4 x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{2 x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \otimes \left(\frac{\ket{0} + \bar{\omega}^{x} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\right) \\ &= \ket{s_3} \otimes \ket{s_2} \otimes \ket{s_1} \otimes \ket{s_0}, \end{align*}\]

      where in the last line we are just giving names to each piece of the tensor product that we would like to produce on the output wires.

      Starting with \(\ket{s_3}\), we have

      \[\bar{\omega}^{8x} = \bar{\omega}^{8 (8x_3 + 4x_2 + 2x_1 + x_0)} = \bar{\omega}^{8 x_0},\]

      since the other terms in the exponent vanish modulo 16. Note that \(\bar{\omega}^8 = -1\), hence we have

      \[\ket{s_3} = \frac{\ket{0} + (-1)^{x_0}\ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}} = H \ket{x_0}.\]

      Similarly, we have

      \[\bar{\omega}^{4x} = \bar{\omega}^{8x_1} \bar{\omega}^{4x_0} = (-1)^{x_1} \bar{\omega}^{4 x_0},\]

      so we can write

      \[\ket{s_2} = \frac{\ket{0} + (-1)^{x_1} \bar{\omega}^{4 x_0} \ket{1}}{\sqrt{2}}\]

      Let \(\mathsf{C}_{4}\) be a \(2\)-qubit “controlled \(\bar{\omega}^4\) gate” in the sense that

      \[\begin{align*} \mathsf{C}_{4} \ket{0} \ket{b} &= \ket{0} \ket{b}, \\ \mathsf{C}_4 \ket{1} \ket{0} &= \ket{1} \ket{0} \\ \mathsf{C}_4 \ket{1} \ket{1} &= \ket{1} \bar{\omega}^4 \ket{1}. \end{align*}\]

      Note that this is specified by the \(4 \times 4\) matrix

      \[\mathsf{C}_4 = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \bar{\omega}^4 \end{bmatrix}.\]

      Then we can write (check this!):

      \[\ket{x_0} \otimes \ket{s_2} = \mathsf{C}_4 (\ket{x_0} \otimes H \ket{x_1}),\]

      and therefore

      \[\ket{s_3} \otimes \ket{s_2} = (H \otimes I) \mathsf{C}_4 (\ket{x_0} \otimes H \ket{x_1}),\]

      yielding a circuit for the first two output wires. Continuing this way yields a circuit for all \(4\) output wires:

    • In the general case, the number of gates needed is \(1+2+\cdots+(n-1)+n \leq \frac{n(n+1)}{2}\). If one wants to implement the circuit approximately (but sufficient, e.g., for Shor’s algorithm), it is possible to use only \(O(n \log n)\) \(1\)- and \(2\)-qubit gates.

    Related videos:

    Thu, Nov 17
    Simon's algorithm over cyclic groups
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 5.3

    • Period finding over \(\mathbb{Z}_N\): Consider \(N=2^n\) and let \(\mathbb{Z}_N\) denote the integers modulo \(N\).

    • Suppose we have a function \(F : \mathbb{Z}_N \to \{1,\ldots,K\}\) that is \(L\)-periodic in the sense that

      \[F(x)=F(y) \iff L \mid x-y,\]

      and our goal is to find the period $L$.

    • Recall that we assume \(F\) is implemented by a circuit with the behavior:

      \[Q_F : \ket{x} \ket{y} \mapsto \ket{x} \ket{y \oplus F(x)}.\]
    • We will use a variant of Simon’s algorithm, as follows:

      • First we prepare the state

        \[Q_F (H^{\otimes n} \ket{00\cdots 0}) \ket{00 \cdots 0} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_N} \ket{x} \ket{F(x)},\]
      • Then we measure the second register, obtaining an outcome \(c^* \in \{1,\ldots,M\}\), and the state collapses to

        \[\sqrt{\frac{L}{N}}\sum_{x : F(x)=c^*} \ket{x}\ket{c^*}.\]

        Note that since \(F\) has period \(L\), it must be that \(L\) divides \(N\) and the number of colors used is \(L\), and each color is used \(M=N/L\) times. So we see each that each used color \(c^*\) is measured with probability \(1/M = L/N\).

      • Finally, we discard the second register (note that it is unentangled with the first register), yielding the state

        \[\ket{g_{c^*}} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \mathbb{Z}_N} g_{c^*}(x) \ket{x},\]

        where \(g_{c^*} : \mathbb{Z}_N \to \mathbb{C}\) is given by

        \[g_{c^*}(x) = \begin{cases} \sqrt{L} & F(x)=c^* \\ 0 & \textrm{otherwise.} \end{cases}\]
      • Now we use the Quantum Fourier transform from to compute

        \[\mathsf{DFT}_N \ket{g_{c^*}} = \sum_{s=0}^{N-1} \hat{g}_{c^*}(s) \ket{s},\]

        and we measure the register, yielding the measurement outcome \(s\) with probability \(\mag{\hat{g}_{c^*}(s)}^2\).

      • In the next lecture, we will compute the Fourier coefficients to show that

        \[\mag{\hat{g}_{c^*}(s)}^2 = \frac{M}{N} \mathbf{1}_{\{0,M,2M,3M,\ldots,N-M\}}(s).\]

        In other words, the outcome of the measurement is a uniformly random number \(s \in \{0,M,2M,3M,\ldots,N-M\}\), i.e., a random multiple of \(M\). Note that from \(M\) we can compute \(L=N/M\).

        By running the whole algorithm twice, we find two random multiples \(k_1 M\) and \(k_2 M\), and it holds that

        \[\begin{equation}\label{eq:gcd} \Pr[\gcd(k_1 M, k_2 M)=M] \geq \frac1{4}, \end{equation}\]

        thus with constant probability we recover \(M\), from which we can compute the period \(L\).

    • To see that \(\eqref{eq:gcd}\) holds, note that \(\gcd(k_1 M, k_2 M) = \gcd(k_1,k_2) M\), so we need to show that if \(k_1,k_2 \in \{0,1,\ldots,L-1\}\) are chosen uniformly at random, then there is a decent chance they don’t share any factor.

    • The probability that we have \(k_1 = 0\) or \(k_2 = 0\) is at most \(1/4\) even for \(L=2\), so we now choose \(k_1,k_2 \in \{1,2,\ldots,L-1\}\) uniformly at random and try to prove that

      \[\Pr[\gcd(k_1,k_2)=1] \geq \frac12\,.\]
    • If \(p\) is a prime number, we have

      \[\Pr[p \mid k_1 \textrm{ and } p \mid k_2] = \Pr[p \mid k_1]^2 \leq 1/p^2,\]

      therefore

      \[\Pr\left[\exists \textrm{ prime } p \textrm{ s.t. } p \mid k_1, p \mid k_2\right] \leq \frac{1}{2^2} + \frac{1}{3^2} + \frac{1}{5^2} + \frac{1}{7^2} + \frac{1}{11^2} \cdots \leq \frac12\,.\]

    Tue, Nov 22
    Shor's algorithm
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 5.3-5.4

    • We show how period-finding leads to an algorithm for factoring. The reduction is entirely classical.

    • Suppose \(p,q\) are distinct prime numbers and \(B=pq\). Given an \(m\)-bit number \(B\) as input, we want to find \(p\) and \(q\).

    • To do this, it suffices to find a non-trivial square-root of \(1\) modulo \(B\). (This was known long before Shor’s algorithm.)

      So suppose that \(R^2 \equiv 1 \bmod B\) but \(R \not\equiv \pm 1 \bmod B\). Then \(pq \mid (R-1)(R+1)\) but \(pq \not\mid R-1\) and \(pq \not \mid R+1\). It follows that one of the following is true:

      \[\begin{align*} p \mid R-1 \ &\textrm{ and } \ q \mid R+1,\quad \textbf{or} \\ q \mid R-1 \ &\textrm{ and } \ p \mid R+1\,. \end{align*}\]

      So compute \(\gcd(B,R+1)=\gcd(pq,R+1)\). This will return one of \(p\) or \(q\).

    • On Homework #4, you will show that the following works with probability \(1/2\):

      • Choose \(a \in \mathbb{Z}_B^*\) uniformly at random.
      • Define \(F : \mathbb{Z}_N \to \mathbb{Z}_N\) by \(F(x) \seteq a^x \bmod B\), where we take \(N=2^n\) and \(n \seteq 10 m\).
      • If \(L \seteq \mathrm{ord}_{\mathbb{Z}_B^*}(a)\) is the order of \(a\) modulo \(B\), then \(F\) will be almost \(L\)-periodic.
      • Now we use the quantum period-finding algorithm from the previous lecture to find \(L\).
      • If \(L\) is even, then our candidate for a non-trivial square-root of \(1\) is the number \(a^{L/2}\). On the homework, you will show that with probability at least \(1/2\), it holds that \(L\) is even and \(a^{L/2} \neq \pm 1 \bmod B\).

    • Previously we showed how to find \(L\) when \(F\) is exactly \(L\)-periodic. In the setup described here, one has the following guarantee:

      With probability at least \(2/5\), we obtain \(s \seteq \closeint{k \frac{N}{L}}\) for a uniformly random \(k \in \{0,1,\ldots,L-1\}\).

    • Therefore we have

      \[\frac{s}{N} \approx \frac{k}{L} \pm \frac{0.5}{N}\]

      for some integer \(k\).

      Now we construct the continued fraction expansion of \(s/N\), which produces a sequence of approximations to \(s/N\).

      Lemma: If \(|\frac{s}{N}-\frac{k}{L}| \leq \frac{1}{2L^2}\), then \(k/L\) occurs as one of the convergents in the continued fraction expansion of \(s/N\).

      This is why we choose \(N = 2^{n}\) where \(n = 10 m\), to ensure that \(0.5/N \leq 1/(2L^2)\) (with room to spare).

    • So we get the fraction \(k/L\) in lowest terms. If \(\gcd(k,L)=1\), then we can use that to recover \(L\). Since \(k \in \{0,1,\ldots,L-1\}\) is uniformly random, it will be prime with probability at least \(\Omega(1/\log(L))\) by the Prime Number Theorem.

    Tue, Nov 29
    Grover's algorithm
    Suggested reading:
    N&C 6.1-6.2

    • Given a function \(F : \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}\), we would like to find an \(x \in \{0,1\}^n\) such that \(F(x)=1\).
    • Recall that \(Q_F^{\pm}\) is the sign oracle implementation of \(F\), where

      \[Q_F^{\pm} \ket{x} = (-1)^{F(x)} \ket{x},\qquad x \in \{0,1\}^n.\]
    • The Grover iteration is given by the unitary \(G \seteq (2 \ket{\psi}\bra{\psi} - I) Q_F^{\pm},\) where \(\ket{\psi} \seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{N}} \sum_{x \in \{0,1\}^n} \ket{x}\).

      You should check that \(2 \ket{\psi}\bra{\psi} - I\) is a unitary matrix, and that it can be efficiently implemented on a quantum computer because

      \[2 \ket{\psi}\bra{\psi} - I = H^{\otimes n} Q_{\mathrm{OR}}^{\pm 1} H^{\otimes n},\]

      where \(Q_{\mathrm{OR}}^{\pm 1}\) is defined by \(\ket{x} \mapsto (-1)^{\mathrm{OR}(x)} \ket{x}\) for \(x \in \{0,1\}^n\).

    • Define \(M = \mag{\{ x : F(x) = 1 \}}\) and the states

      \[\begin{align*} \ket{\alpha} &\seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{M}} \sum_{x : F(x)=1} \ket{x} \\ \ket{\beta} &\seteq \frac{1}{\sqrt{N-M}} \sum_{x : F(x)=0} \ket{x}. \end{align*}\]

      Then we can write the uniform superposition as

      \[\ket{\psi} = \sqrt{\frac{M}{N}} \ket{\alpha} + \sqrt{\frac{N-M}{N}} \ket{\beta}.\]
    • It turn outs that \(G \ket{\psi}\) remains in the plane spanned by \(\{\ket{\alpha},\ket{\beta}\}\), so this is also true for \(G^k \ket{\psi}\) for all \(k \geq 1\).

      This is true because

      \[Q_F^{\pm} \left(a \ket{\alpha} + b \ket{\beta}\right) = -a \ket{\alpha} + b \ket{\beta},\]

      hence \(Q_F^{\pm}\) is a reflection around the \(\ket{\beta}\) axis (in the \(\ket{\alpha},\ket{\beta}\) plane). Moreover,

      \[(2 \ket{\psi}\bra{\psi} - I) (c_0 \ket{\psi} + c_1 \ket{\psi^{\perp}}) = c_0 \ket{\psi} - c_1 \ket{\psi^{\perp}},\]

      for any vector \(\ket{\psi^{\perp}}\) that is orthogonal to \(\ket{\psi}\), so this operator is a reflection about \(\ket{\psi}\).

    • We conclude that \(G\) maps the \(\{\ket{\alpha},\ket{\beta}\}\) plane to itself and is the composition of two reflections. That means \(G\) is rotation, and we can calculate that if

      \[\ket{\psi} = \cos(\theta) \ket{\beta} + \sin(\theta) \ket{\alpha},\]

      then

      \[G \ket{\psi} = \cos(3\theta) \ket{\beta} + \sin(3\theta) \ket{\alpha},\]

      hence in the \(\{\ket{\alpha},\ket{\beta}\}\) plane, \(G\) is a rotation by angle \(2\theta\). Therefore:

      \[G^k \ket{\psi} = \cos ((2k+1)\theta) \ket{\beta} + \sin ((2k+1)\theta) \ket{\alpha}\]
    • Since \(\cos(\epsilon) = 1 - \frac12 \epsilon^2 + O(\epsilon^4)\), it holds that for \(M \leq N/2\), we have \(\theta \approx \sqrt{M/N}\). Hence we can choose \(k \leq O(\sqrt{M/N})\) appropriately so that

      \[\sin((2k+1)\theta) \geq 0.1,\]

      in which case, when we measure, we have at least a 10% chance of sampling an \(x\) such that \(F(x)=1\).

    • We can accomplish this even if we only know that \(M \in [2^{-j} N, 2^{-j+1} N)\) for some \(j\). Hence we can try \(j=1,2,3,\ldots\) until we find an \(x\) such that \(F(x)=1\). The number of queries we need will be on the order of

      \[\sqrt{2^1} + \sqrt{2^2} + \cdots + \sqrt{2^j} \leq O\left(\sqrt{N/M}\right).\]

    Quantum information theory
    Thu, Dec 01
    Quantum probability theory

    • In classical (finite) probability theory, one considers a state space \(\Omega = \{1,2,\ldots,n\}\) with \(n\) possible outcomes. A probability distribution on this space is specified by a nonnegative vector \(p \in \mathbb{R}_+^n\) such that \(p_1+\cdots+p_n=1\).

    • There are many situations where we want to combine quantum superpositions and classical probability theory. For instance, if we measure the state \(\ket{\psi} = \alpha \ket{0} + \beta \ket{1}\) in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis, the result is a probability distribution over outcomes: With probability \(|\alpha|^2\) we get the state \(\ket{0}\) and with probability \(|\beta|^2\) we get the state \(\ket{1}\).

      We will represent this entire “ensemble” by the \(2 \times 2\) matrix

      \[|\alpha|^2 \ket{0} \bra{0} + |\beta|^2 \ket{1}\bra{1}.\]
    • A density matrix on the state space \(\Omega\) is an \(n \times n\) matrix \(\rho \in \C^{n \times n}\) satisfying the two properties:

      • \(\rho\) is positive semidefinite (PSD), written \(\rho \succeq 0\), and
      • \(\tr(\rho)=1\).

    • Recall that a Hermitian matrix \(A\) is one that satisfies \(A^* = A\), and every such matrix has all real eigenvalues. A PSD matrix is a Hermitian matrix that has all nonnegative eigenvalues.

      Recall also the definition of the trace of a matrix: \(\tr(\rho) = \rho_{11} + \cdots + \rho_{nn}\) is the sum of the diagonal entries of \(\rho\).

    • We can therefore think of classical probability distributions as corresponding to diagonal density matrices.

    • Every density matrix \(\rho\) can be thought of as a probability distribution over pure quantum states. That’s because if \(\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_n\) are the nonnegative eigenvalues of \(\rho\) and \(\ket{u_1},\ldots,\ket{u_n}\) are corresponding eigenvectors, then

      \[\rho = \lambda_1 \ket{u_1}\bra{u_1} + \lambda_2 \ket{u_2}\bra{u_2} + \cdots + \lambda_n \ket{u_n} \bra{u_n}.\]

      And \(\tr(\rho) = \lambda_1 + \cdots + \lambda_n = 1\).

      If \(\rho\) has all distinct eigenvalues, then this decomposition is unique. But if \(\rho\) has repeated eigenvalues, then it’s certainly not! As an example, we have

      \[\begin{equation}\label{eq:tworep} \begin{pmatrix} 1/2 & 0 \\ 0 & 1/2 \end{pmatrix} = \frac{\ket{0}\bra{0}}{2} + \frac{\ket{1} \bra{1}}{2} = \frac{\ket{-}\bra{-}}{2} + \frac{\ket{+}\bra{+}}{2}. \end{equation}\]
    • To understand the utility of this notation, consider a situation where Alice and Bob share an EPR pair

      \[\ket{\psi} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{0} \ket{0} + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \ket{1}\ket{1}.\]

      Consider the three possibilities: (i) Bob measures his qubit in the \(\{\ket{0},\ket{1}\}\) basis. (ii) Bob measures his qubit in the \(\{\ket{+},\ket{-}\}\) basis. (iii) Bob doesn’t measure his qubit at all.

      If there is no communication between Alice and Bob, all three of these possibilities should not change her perspective on the state of the system. (Otherwise Bob would be able to communicate with Alice instantaneously.)

      Indeed, the density matrix describing Alice’s state in situations (i) and (ii) are described in \eqref{eq:tworep}. Those two situations are easy to analyze, as after Bob measures his state collapses and so does Alice’s (so they are no longer entangled).

      For the third possibility, Bob doesn’t measure and Alice and Bob’s qubits remain entangled. Even in this case, we might still try to describe the set of all possible measurement outcomes Alice can obtain if she never communicates again with Bob. In order to describe Alice’s state, we need to “marginalize” the system. This operation is called the partial trace and we’ll focus on it in the next lecture.

    • Measurements: A general measurement with \(k\) outcomes (also called a POVM) is described by a decomposition of the \(n \times n\) identity matrix:

      \[M_1 + M_2 + \cdots + M_k = I,\]

      where each \(M_j\) is PSD.

      If the system is described by the density matrix \(\rho\), then the probability of outcome \(j\) is given by \(\tr(M_j \rho)\). Note that the sum of the probabilities of the outcomes is exactly \(1\):

      \[\tr(M_1 \rho) + \tr(M_2 \rho) + \cdots + \tr(M_k \rho) = \tr((M_1+\cdots+M_k) \rho) = \tr(I \rho) = \tr(\rho) = 1.\]

      And as you will see in HW Problem #1, if \(A\) and \(B\) are PSD matrices, then \(\tr(AB) \geq 0\), so each of these “probabilities” is indeed a nonnegative number.

    • This generalizes the notion of measuring a pure state \(\ket{\phi} \in \mathbb{C}^n\) in an orthonormal basis \(\{\ket{u_1}, \cdots, \ket{u_n} \}\). Indeed, the corresponding density matrix is \(\rho = \ket{\phi} \bra{\phi}\) and the corresponding measurement matrices are \(M_j = \ket{u_j} \bra{u_j}\).

      Note that \(M_1 + \cdots + M_n = \ket{u_1}\bra{u_1} + \cdots + \ket{u_n} \bra{u_n} = I\) and the matrix \(\rho\) is PSD since it has exactly one eigenvalue of value \(1\) (with eigenvector \(\ket{\phi}\)) and the other eigenvalues are \(0\).

      Moreover, we have

      \[\begin{align*} \tr(M_j \rho) &= \tr(\ket{u_j}\bra{u_j} \ket{\phi}\bra{\phi}) \\ &= \ip{u_j}{\phi} \tr(\ket{u_j}\bra{\phi}) \\ &= \ip{u_j}{\phi} \ip{\phi}{u_j} = |\ip{u_j}{\phi}|^2, \end{align*}\]

      agreeing with our rule of quantum measurements in an orthonormal basis.

    • Often for these general measurements, we are not as concerned with what the state collapses to after measuring. If we want an analog of the Born rule, we need to also write each \(M_j\) in the form \(M_j = U_j^* U_j\). (Since \(M_j\) is PSD, we can always do this, but it is not necessarily unique!)

      In that case, after measuring outcome \(j\), the analogous Born rule says that the state collapses to

      \[\frac{U_j \rho U_j^*}{\tr(U_j \rho U_j^*)}.\]

      It’s useful to note here that by cyclicity of trace, we have \(\tr(U_j \rho U_j^*) = \tr(U_j^* U_j \rho) = \tr(M_j \rho)\).

    Relevant lecture notes: Quantum probability theory

    Tue, Dec 06
    Composite systems, partial trace, and entanglement

    Summary

    • If we have two classical systems with outcomes \(\Omega_A = \{1,\ldots,m\}\) and \(\Omega_B = \{1,\ldots,n\}\), we can describe a state in the first system by a probability \(p^{A} \in \mathbb{R}_+^m\) and a state in the second system by a probability \(p^{B} \in \mathbb{R}_+^n\).

      The joint statistical state is not described by the pair \((p^{A},p^{B}) \in \mathbb{R}^m \times \mathbb{R}^n\) unless the systems are independent. The joint state is instead given by a nonnegative vector \(q \in \mathbb{R}^m \otimes \mathbb{R}^n\) since we need to assign probability to all \(m n\) pairs of outcomes. Moreover, if the systems are independent, then their state is given by the tensor product \(p^{A} \otimes p^{B}\).

    • Similarly, if \(\mathcal{H}_A = \C^m\) and \(\mathcal{H}_B = \C^n\) are two state spaces, then the composite system is described by a state in \(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B = \C^m \otimes \C^n\). If system \(A\) is described by the density matrix \(\rho^A\) and system $B$ is described by \(\rho^B\), and the two systems are independent, then the joint system is described by the tensor product \(\rho^A \otimes \rho^B \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B)\).

    • If \(q \in \mathbb{R}^m \otimes \mathbb{R}^n\) describes a joint probability distribution on the space of outcomes \([m] \times [n]\), then we can consider the marginal distributions \(q^A\) and \(q^B\) induced when we consider only the first or second system, e.g.,

      \[q^A(x) \seteq \sum_{y \in [n]} q(x,y).\]
    • In the quantum setting, there is a similar operation called the partial trace. Given a density \(\rho \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B)\), the corresponding marginal density \(\rho^A \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A)\) should yield the same outcome for all measurements on the joint system \(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B\) that ignore the \(B\) component, i.e.,

      \[\tr\left((U \otimes I) \rho\right) = \tr\left(U \rho^A\right),\]

      and similarly for the marginal density on the \(B\)-component:

      \[\tr\left((I \otimes V) \rho\right) = \tr\left(V \rho^B\right).\]

      Let us define partial trace operators \(\tr_{A} : \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B) \to \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_B)\) and \(\tr_B : \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B) \to \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A)\) that ``trace out’’ the corresponding component so that \(\rho^A = \tr_B(\rho)\) and \(\rho^B = \tr_A(\rho)\). These should satisfy: For all \(U,V\):

      \[\tr_B (U \otimes V) = U \tr(V),\quad \tr_A (U \otimes V) = \tr(U) V.\]
    • The name ``partial trace’’ comes from thinking of an element \(\rho \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B)\) as a block matrix. Let us use greek letters \(\alpha,\beta\) to index the \(A\)-system and arabic letters \(i,j\) for the \(B\)-system. Then it is possible to think of \(\rho\) as an \(m \times m\) block matrix where \(\rho_{\alpha\beta} \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_B)\) for \(\alpha,\beta \in [m]\). In this case,

      \[\tr_A (\rho) = \sum_{\alpha=1}^m \rho_{\alpha \alpha} \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_B).\]

      Note that

      \[\tr(\tr_A (\rho)) = \sum_{i=1}^n \left(\tr_A (\rho)\right)_{ii} = \sum_{i=1}^n \left(\sum_{\alpha=1}^n (\rho_{\alpha\alpha})_{ii}\right) = r(\rho).\]

      If we instead represent \(\rho\) as a block matrix where \(\rho_{ij} \in \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H}_A)\) for each \(i,j \in [n]\), then

      \[\tr_B (\rho) = \sum_{i=1}^n \rho_{ii}.\]

    Relevant lecture notes: Quantum probability theory

    Thu, Dec 08
    Quantum information

    Homeworks

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